Berkeley, Calif., 1973. Historically prophetic me… Wearing a hand of Fatima as a piece of jewelry is thought to prevent human harm and illness. Spiritual healing. Religion; Menu. London, 1990. Despite this prophetic denouncement, both cupping and cautery are found widely throughout the Middle Eastern region in the early twenty-first century. Oh, and a map of the area is essential, too. Islam is the most widely followed religion in the Middle East. The Ḥamadsha: A Study of Moroccan Ethnopsychiatry. Indeed, it is women—not men—who are most actively involved in saint veneration and who are, therefore, the primary participants in the salvation-oriented ziyārāt to local and regional saints' tombs. They have had an enduring influence on Western civilization. Inhorn, Marcia C. Quest for Conception: Gender, Infertility, and Egyptian Medical Traditions. There is a considerable intra-cultural diversity among Filipino Americans with regards to health beliefs and health practices. Mind-body-spirit integration. 236–255. Encyclopedia.com. This religious argument is becoming increasingly apparent as a result of the contemporary Islamic revival in many parts of the Middle East and, according to Eleanor Abdella Doumato (2000), has severely restricted women's healing practices in Saudi Arabia, regarded as the home of Islam and the site of the annual Islamic pilgrimage, or ḥājj. Given its perceived efficacy in the treatment of rheumatic, muscular, and gynecological complaints, cupping is widely performed by both lay cupping (kasr or kaʾsāt hawāʾ ) persons and ethnomedical healers such as midwives in countries such as Egypt. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. The zār is a women's spirit possession cult, found primarily in Egypt, Sudan, and the Arab Gulf or the regions closest to East Africa, where the zār cult probably originated. In Changing Disease Patterns and Human Behaviour, edited by N. F. Stanley and R. A. Joske, pp. For this reason amulets often adorn the clothing of infants and young children. Health care organizations must assure the competence of language assistance provided to limited English proficient patients by interpreters and bilingual staff. Anthropological Perspectives, Health and Disease: IV. Use of herbs from native plants. Your Middle East. 1. Inhorn, Marcia C. "Kabsa (a.k.a. In the Middle East in the early twenty-first century, opposition to popular healing rituals does not come mainly from biomedical quarters. This syncretic association of healing practice with Islamic prayer ritual is extremely significant, even though it is disdained by religiously literate orthodox Muslims. ." Patients and Methods: A total of 319 Middle Eastern refugees and migrants with hypertension were approached via various social groups in Australia and asked to complete Arabic versions of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire (BMQ) and the Medication Adherence Questionnaire. Pain Management in Middle Eastern Culture. 2. Dundes, Alan, ed. ." https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/healing-and-medicine-popular-healing-practices-middle-eastern-cultures, "Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures Mernissi, Fatima. It is the most important cultural factor that shapes people’s attitudes and ideologies. For example, many countries in the Middle East still have arranged marriages and require that women cover their head and/or face to … El Sendiony, M. F. "The Problem of Cultural Specificity of Mental Illness: The Egyptian Mental Disease and the Zar Ceremony." In the World Health Organization’s (WHO) World Health Report issued in 2000, the UAE ranked 27 in the world for its performance. How to Make a Cleopatra-Style Headdress. HEALING Reviews of Books About Ancient Cultures. 127–138. ." Morsy, Soheir A. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry 12 (1988): 85–112. Philosophical Perspectives, Health and Disease: V. The Experience of Health and Illness, Health and Human Services Department, United States, Health and Long-Term Care Program Integration. Social Science and Medicine 28 (1989): 381–388. Gran, Peter. London, 1969. To counter these various etiological possibilities, lower-class infertile women often undertake relentless "quests for conception," in which they engage simultaneously in arduous ethnomedical and biomedical therapeutic rituals (Inhorn, 1994a). Walker, John. . However, when this feeling consistently lasts over a certain length of time, it turns in to clinical depression. The Daya of Egypt: Survival in a Modernizing Society. I was wearing […] Middle East's Muslim population accounts for roughly 20% of the world's Muslim population. These are some of the public health issues the region has to deal with today. Middle Eastern religion - Middle Eastern religion - Religious practices and institutions: Fertility of agriculture, of edible animals, and of the human population was a paramount factor in the life and religion of the ancient Middle East. About 20% of the world's Muslims live in the Middle East. El Messiri Nadim, Nawal. In this belief, anything that provokes jealousy in another gives the jealous person the power to cause illness or misfortune for the lucky person or family. 2. The use of oriental has shifted to refer to home furnishings, carpets e… If Bahaism is the baby of the Middle East, then Zoroastrianism is the granddad of the group. Healers often provide special instructions on how the written amulet is to be utilized (e.g., in bath water, in drinking water, worn next to the body, slept on, stepped over, or burned with incense, which in and of itself is deemed protective against harmful forces). Rural Health Care in Egypt. Strong religion beliefs often govern family life and their way of life. Cautery is reportedly practiced in Morocco, Sudan, Yemen, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and among Palestinian Bedouins in Israel. Pediatricians should respect patients' health beliefs that may not be consistent with a biomedical model of disease etiology. stream Instructions. The initial portion of the document provides guidelines for health services to Muslims. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. The Middle East is the birthplace of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, all monotheistic religions that grew from the same tradition. Berkeley, Calif., 1990. View Academics in Middle Eastern Health Care Beliefs on Academia.edu. The Middle Eastern diet falls under the category of a Mediterranean diet, which incorporates the foods and cuisines of the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. 271–297. Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East and Central Asia: An Anthropological Approach. Neither domain has been well studied by social scientists or historians. "Hegemony and Healing in Rural North Yemen." Identification. For women in the Middle East, healing as well as the solution of other difficult life problems is a primary impetus for ziyārāt to saints' shrines. Family and friends should not be used to provide interpretation services (except on request by the patient/consumer). Inhorn, Marcia C. Infertility and Patriarchy: The Cultural Politics of Gender and Family Life in Egypt. Historically prophetic medicine constituted a quasi-medical "religious medicine" based exclusively (at least putatively) on passages in the Islamic Scriptures (Dols, 1984). Books about Egypt and Sumer. Cupping (kasr or kaʾsāt hawāʾ ) involves two objects—one to be lit (usually a piece of cloth dipped in a flammable liquid, a candle, or a corncob), and one to be used as a sort of suction cup (usually a glass jar, a pottery vessel, a mortar, or a cup). Madison, Wis., 1992. To take one example from the Middle East, Egyptian ethnomedical beliefs about the causes of infertility range from humidity to sorcery and include the possibilities of an open back, a shock, a polluting entrance, an angered spirit-sister under the ground, and the ultimate cause, which is always God's will. >> In Mormons and Muslims, edited by Spencer J. Palmer, pp. Orientation "Women, Saints, and Sanctuaries." x���rܶ��_��#�؊$��d��I�$uS�$���탬�w������@��y7���3��YA@ T\km�����~Wx"�\'�ć�؋��j`��Ч�'�u-ϊ#'������ʓ�'N�Kh�IS�ixvYz���G��8�)O&f='H��'V��V�%+��:�����ɳ7��td�G����wc�@X7+��������������\��bG It is fair to conclude that Islam—at least in its more populist form—has always been a major influence on the healing practices, pilgrimages, and rituals that continue, unabated, among the poorer urban and rural communities in the Middle East in the early twenty-first century. Furthermore, these records from the past show that popular healing practices found throughout Middle Eastern countries are deeply embedded in three ancient healing traditions—pharaonic (Egyptian), yunāni (Hellenic), and prophetic (Islamic)—all of which gained ascendancy before the rise of Western biomedicine in the region during the nineteenth-century colonial period (Adib, 2004; Inhorn, 1994a). Myntti, Cynthia. Thus middle- to upper-class Middle Eastern patients can avail themselves of medical diagnosis and treatment services in cities such as Jiddah, Saudi Arabia; Cairo, Egypt; Tehran, Iran; or Beirut, Lebanon, with expectations that the services rendered will be on a par with those offered in the best medical centers in the West. . Extended Abstract: Constituting only a small fraction of immigrants living in the U.S., Arab/ Middle Eastern immigrants have been overshadowed in the academic literature on migration, health and religion by other immigrant groups such as Latino and Asian immigrants. The Mediterranean diet has garnered praise for its role in keeping the body healthy and staving … The misunderstandings tend to be mutual. We cling to the ancient teachings of curing mental issues and deny modern day approach, which sometimes people call the “Western world approach” to … Retrieved January 12, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/healing-and-medicine-popular-healing-practices-middle-eastern-cultures. Most of these shrines are associated in some way with a dead "pious one" (Eickelman, 1998), either a sayyid (a descendant of the prophet Muḥammad); a renowned cleric regarded as pious for the quality of his learning; a founder or descendant of a founder of a Ṣūfī religious brotherhood; or a holy person, male or female, known for exceptional religiosity and the demonstrated ability during his or her lifetime to perform miracles. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/healing-and-medicine-popular-healing-practices-middle-eastern-cultures. Tapper, Nancy. The United Arab Emirates’ health care system has a good ratio of doctors (2.5 per 1000 population) and is financed by a healthy $1600 per capitaper year. Early, Evelyn A. Baladi Women of Cairo: Playing with an Egg and a Stone. A great tension exists between different ethnic groups in the Middle East. Wombs and Alien Spirits: Women, Men, and the Zar Cult in Northern Sudan. Several poems inspired by the ancient legends from the Middle East. El-Hamamsy, Laila. Although it is important to emphasize the rich diversity of popular healing practices in the Middle East, a number of main types of healing practices stand out as particularly relevant and representative of the region. Middle East's Muslim population accounts for roughly 20% of the world's Muslim population. Mental health conditions in the Middle East. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. There is a considerable intra-cultural diversity among Filipino Americans with regards to health beliefs and health … Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 82 (1988): 277–280. As any visitor to a souk anywhere in the Middle East will see, Western, allopathic medicine exists alongside a continuing belief in traditional medical practices, such as herbalism, in a synthesis that precedes the contemporary West's interest in integrating scientific and complementary systems of … Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Philadelphia, 1994a. Ottawa, 1980. Technologies such as coronary bypass surgery, organ transplantation services, and the latest forms of in vitro fertilization are widely available in urban centers. Cautery may be used directly on the site of a patient's bodily complaint (e.g., lower back, arm or leg joints), or it may be used on other sites of the body to "tighten" relaxed nerves and muscles. Health Disparities: The Case of Arab/Middle Eastern Immigrants in The United States. Westport, Conn., 1992. quently, the number who seek health care has also been increasing. For us, Islam is not only considered a religion but is also a way of living. Throughout the Middle East the most pervasive amulet is the so-called hand of Fatima, a down-turned, stylized, five-fingered hand often made of silver or blue pottery (or both) and often incorporating Qurʾanic verses or representations of a human eye. The exodus of Christians from the Middle East is real and tragic. "New Spells for Old: Expectations and Realities of Western Medicine in a Remote Tribal Society in Yemen, Arabia." Thousands of Muslim pilgrims make ziyārāt, or visits, to saints' shrines, some large, some small, dotting the urban and rural landscapes of countries like Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt but also in Middle Eastern countries outside the Arab world, including Turkey and Iran. Cambridge, Mass., 1978. (January 12, 2021). Harmony with natural environment (e.g., animals, plants, sky, and earth) is important for health. Dec. 15, 2020. Adib, Salim M. "From the Biomedical Model to the Islamic Alternative: A Brief Overview of Medical Practices in the Contemporary Arab World." In Women in the Muslim World, edited by Lois Beck and Nikki Keddie, pp. In the neighboring countries of the Arab Gulf and Levant (Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Jordan), ḥukamā ʿarabi (Arabic doctors) may provide a variety of herbal, spiritual, and other physical remedies for difficult afflictions, such as male infertility and impotence, sometimes operating out of their own clinics and charging high prices for their services. Strong religion beliefs often govern family life and their way of life. The doctrines and purpose of our norms and religion have served as both a guide and a hindrance to the practice of mental health care. Upper Saddle River, N.J., 1998. "Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). London, 1934. Middle East culture and beliefs to pray several times a day, including while at work. From the early twentieth century until independence in 1960, the colony of Niger was part of French We…, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Tibet, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in the Ancient near East, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in the African Diaspora, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Judaism, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Japan, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Islamic Texts and Traditions, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Indigenous Australia, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Greece and Rome, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Christianity, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in China, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Āyurveda and South Asia, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Africa, Healing and Medicine: Alternative Medicine in the New Age, Healing and the Arts in Afro-Caribbean Cultures, Health and Disease: I. According to medical historians, however, prophetic medicine was actually a syncretic blend of biblical Jewish medicine as contained in the Book of Leviticus ; Persian medicine as taught in the famous medical school of Gondeshapur, which was attended by several of the Prophet's relatives; nomadic Bedouin medicine as practiced in Arabia (particularly in Medina and Mecca) during the Prophet's lifetime; and Hippocratic-Galenic yunāni medicine from Greece. The Evil Eye. Cautery (kawī, kayy, makwa, ḥadīd) involves placing a heated metal object, usually a nail or a small rod much like a branding iron, on the patient's skin. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. A key principle shared by many Asian cultures is a holistic view of health, with an emphasis on balance and harmony between the individual’s mind, body, and environment (Trinh- Shevrin, 2009). Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Rosenberg, Lior, Amiram Sagi, Nador Stahl, Baruch Greber, and Patrick Beni-Meir. Religion in the cultures of the Middle East. However, with the coming of Islam to the region, the prophet Muḥammad is said to have forbidden cauterization as a pre-Islamic, Bedouin practice of heathen origin (Doumato, 2000; Ullman, 1978). In addition, the activities of the pilgrimage itself—including the respite from everyday routine; the exhilaration of travel to a spiritually "magnetic" center (Preston, 1992); the cathartic effects of unburdening one's "private heartaches" (Tapper, 1990) on a nonjudgmental but responsive holy one who can be requested to act on one's behalf; the ability to be part of a sympathetic, experienced community of female sufferers who often congregate at these shrines (Mernissi, 1977); and the ministrations of the living, barakah -bestowing shaikh s who often attend to these shrines and who pray and write healing amulets for suffering pilgrims—are part and parcel of the healing process. If you’re interested in this area of the world, you’ll want to know the heads of state in the region, acronyms people use in the Middle East, and some basic Islamic terms, because many — although by no means most — of the world’s Muslims reside here. In South Asia, for example, Pashtuns, Punjabis, Sindhis, Hazaras, Tajiks, and other groups are in constant conflict. View Academics in Middle Eastern Health Care Beliefs on Academia.edu. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. Each section describes the staple foods, meal patterns, cooking techniques, and food-related customs and traditions. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Journal of Men's Studies 10 (2002): 343–359. Thus even if miraculous cures do not eventuate, the pilgrimage itself may bring relief and psychological relaxation as well as spiritual renewal through contact with divinity. POPULATION: 40 million Islam is the most widely followed religion in the Middle East. In short, the ethnomedical treatments for infertility alone in one Middle Eastern country are amazingly diverse and complex, suggesting the richness of popular healing beliefs and practices in this part of the world. 4. Social Science and Medicine 27 (1988): 233–240. 31–46. "The Evil Eye and Infant Health in Lebanon." Social Science and Medicine 15B (1981): 219–235. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Provo, Utah, 1983. Biegman, Nicolaas H. Egypt: Moulids, Saints, Sufis. In other words, religion can be a protective factor against suicide. And how far gone is the issue of obesity across Middle Eastern countries? Even though most of the inhabitants are Muslims, some practice Christianity. Social Science and Medicine 35 (1992): 1313–1320. PwC takes a highly holistic approach to the health industries sector in the Middle East. Middle Eastern Christians are relatively wealthy, well educated, and politically moderate, as they have today an active role in various social, economical, sporting and political aspects in the Middle East. It arose as a formal discipline in the wake o…, PRONUNCIATION: soo-duh-NEEZ Countries of the Middle East – a link to a list of 11 countries. Underwood, Peter, and Zdenka Underwood. Pasadena, Calif., 1973. Although they respect American medicine in general, Countries of the Middle East – a link to a list of 11 countries. Prophetic and Ṣūfī healing traditions continue to flourish in many parts of the Middle East, particularly in the countries of North Africa. Gender, Sickness, and Healing in Rural Egypt: Ethnography in Historical Context. Typically, ziyārāt to the mosque-tombs of blessed saints are journeys that women make alone, allowing them the opportunity to demonstrate their agency and independence. HEALTH CARE BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS OF MIDDLE EASTERN CULTURAL GROUPS . In the 17th century, traditional Vietnamese and Chinese practitioners began identifying their medicine as Dong Y to distinguish their medicine from the Western colonial medicine. Through the zār they find a social etiology for their suffering (i.e., harmful spirits), a sense of community solidarity with other similarly afflicted women, and a way to press for demands (e.g., new clothing, jewelry, feasts) through the idiom of spirit possession and the invocation of these spirits through joyful music and dance. The religion that God set forth for Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and muḤammad proclaimed by the latter in Arabia in the 7th century, which enjoys the…, veil The earliest evidence for veiling is an Assyrian legal text dating from the thirteenth century bce, requiring women of clearly defined social st…, Niger Although pharaonic medicine and later yunāni medicine were extremely important literate medical traditions in this region of the world, this essay begins with a brief history of prophetic (Islamic) medicine, which arose during the period following the Prophet Muḥammad's death in 632 ce and which still represents an extremely influential healing tradition throughout the region. << Bakker, Jogien. •During illness or crisis, Middle Eastern rely heavily on their “in-group” instead of trying to cope more individually as many Americans would. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. The Mediterranean diet has garnered praise for its role in keeping the body healthy and staving … Edinburgh, Scotland, 1978. Such healing furthermore may be multifaceted. Nonetheless, etiological beliefs about illness range from naturalistic (physical) to personalistic (social), to supernatural (spiritual), as is also common in many other parts of the world. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures. Poems Inspired By Middle Eastern History & Culture. Amulets often consist of small pieces of paper, sometimes folded, upon which indecipherable formulas or religious verses have been inscribed by a shaikh bil-barakah or quasi-religious male healer. Although women's zār cults have been suppressed in some Middle Eastern societies by conservative religious forces, the zār is experiencing a revival in parts of the Arab Gulf, particularly among socially isolated tribal communities (Doumato, 2000). The practices of cupping and cautery were the most common healing methods employed in pre-Islamic times, according to medical historians (Ullman, 1978). Middle Eastern culture is very broad since it not only includes countries in Asia but also in Africa. ••• •People close to patient consider it a duty to be there. Research indicates that close to 94% of Middle East's population belonged to Islam. Health Science project by Kate, Will, Alex, Andrea. "Maqua (Therapeutic Burn) as an Indicator of Underlying Disease." CHARACTERISTICS OF MANY TRIBES. Encyclopedia.com. %���� Choice and Ambiguity in Morocco's Pluralistic Medical System." Ethnomedical therapies for female infertility in Egypt include vaginal suppositories with various herbal and mineral substances; cupping on the lower back; vapor sitz baths; cauterization of the skin with a heated rod; sewing of the skin of the lower back; wearing a belt and padlock; countershocking the infertile woman who has been shocked; sorcery nullification; spirit appeasement; and elaborate rituals for a culture-bound syndrome known in Egypt as mushāhara or kabsa, which is thought to be the major cause of infertility in women. In the early twenty-first century, amulets are widely used throughout the Middle East for three primary purposes: (1) to prevent the deleterious envy (evil eye) that can destroy objects and lead to illness; (2) to nullify acts of sorcery, which are also thought to cause illnesses such as impotence; and (3) on a more mundane level, to treat physical complaints, ranging from headaches to fever. 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